海外建盏 | 如若茶碗可说话大都会建盏专文

 发表于 2015-02-04    阅读 640

引子:原文为纽约大都会博物馆所写的《If Tea Bowls Could Talk》。翻译此文的目的是,让大家了解这么个信息。建盏不仅在日本,在欧洲、美国也是极受推崇的。
承载着千年文化的中国瓷器,此番重新在大都会博物馆中心Great Hall Balcony(200—205号展厅)展出。在众多中国陶瓷展品中,一些展现了陶瓷工艺的历次飞跃、一些描绘了中国丰富多元的文化,而更多则与来自世界其他地区的陶瓷,共同描述了中国对世界陶瓷史绵远流长、错综复杂的影响。所有这些瓷器承载的故事,以令人着迷、无法预知的形式,交织、汇聚在一起。
以11至12世纪的宋代为例,茶碗的大量生产就充分体现了彼时中国饮茶风气的兴盛。茶,最早被用于佛教打坐、参禅的提神饮品。为满足宋代巨大的市场需求,当时中国约有上百个窑口生产茶碗,例如:中国南部的福建建窑,就在此时开始专门生产茶碗。
建窑所产的茶碗——建盏,以其黑/褐釉面上特有的纹路而著称,典型代表为:以其纹路,形象命名的“兔毫”。这些独特的釉面纹路,是通过控制釉药中的氧化铁含量来实现的。在烧制过程中,过量的铁元素从釉层中分离出来,形成 “兔毫”纹路。

兔毫建盏 宋代 大都会博物馆藏


虽然建盏当时仅在中国国内使用,并不出口,但还是被前来中国求学的日本僧侣带到了日本。在日本,建盏非常稀少,也因此非常珍贵,有时会被用在隆重、盛大的茶仪式中。损坏的建盏,常用日本金缮法修复。

日本金缮法修复的宋代建盏 大都会博物馆藏


到了15世纪,日本窑口也开始仿制兔毫建盏和其他的中国釉色茶碗。这类茶碗统称为天目茶碗。天目(Temmoku)即为临近福建建窑的一个重要的佛教中心——天目山的日文发音。

16世纪日本仿制的兔毫建盏 大都会博物馆藏



日本当代仿制的油滴建盏 大都会博物馆藏

美国人Charles Fergus Binns(出生于英国,1857—1934)仿制的兔毫盏

时至今日仍在日本烧制的天目釉,在19世纪后期至20世纪早期从中国传播至日本以及西方国家。这是因为文艺复兴运动(1860–1910年)的影响下,西方人厌倦了现代生活的城镇化、工业化以及批量生产,开始注重于艺术家的个性创作和艺术表现,转而将目光转向亚洲的陶瓷传统艺术,并产生出浓厚的兴趣。

也正因为此,大都会博物馆也展出了由Charles Fergus Binns仿制的兔毫建盏,这是对11~12世纪中国宋代建盏的传承。Binns在19世纪末从英国移民至美国,收藏了大量的日本陶瓷作品,并被誉为20世纪初期美国个人陶瓷创作兴起的奠基人。


纽约大都会博物馆英语原文:

If Tea Bowls Could Talk

Denise Patry Leidy, Curator, Department of Asian Art
Posted: Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Hundreds of stories are embedded in the Chinese ceramics that have recently been reinstalled on the Great Hall Balcony (Gallery 200 through Gallery 205), at the heart of the Museum. Some of these stories tell of technological advances in ceramic production, others illustrate aspects of Chinese culture, and many—including comparative pieces from around the world—illustrate China‘s continuous and complicated impact in global ceramic history. All of these stories intertwine in fascinating and, sometimes, unexpected ways.

For example, the rise in the production of tea bowls during the eleventh to the twelfth century illustrates the growing use of tea, which, in turn, can be traced to the role of this beverage as a stimulant for Buddhist meditation. This demand became so intense that some of the hundreds of kilns producing ceramics in China at this time, such as the Jian kilns in Fujian Province in the southeast, began to specialize and produce only tea bowls. Bowls produced at the Jian kilns are characterized by lush black/brown glazes that show dramatic patterns such as the aptly named “hare‘s—fur“ design in their surfaces. These designs were created by manipulating the amount of iron—oxide in the glaze. During firing, the excess iron segregates itself from the glaze compound thereby creating patterns such as the “hare‘s fur.“

Although they were produced for domestic use and not intended for export, Jian tea bowls were sometimes brought to Japan by Buddhist monks who had traveled to China to practice and study with famous masters. Rare in Japan, these treasured bowls, which were sometimes used in the tea ceremony, were often repaired using gold lacquer.

By the fifteenth century, Japanese kilns also produced tea bowls with “hare‘s—fur“ and other Chinese glaze patterns. These designs are collectively known as temmoku after the Japanese reading of Mount Tianmu, an important Buddhist center in Fujian near the Jian kiln complex.

Temmoku glazes, which continue to be used in Japan today, traveled from China and Japan to the West in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This was due to a renewed interest in Asian ceramics spurred in part by widespread concerns regarding urbanization, industrialization, and mass production that underlay the Arts and Crafts Movement (1860–1910) and its emphasis on individual production and artistic expression.

The “hare‘s—fur“ pattern in the glaze on a tea bowl by Charles Fergus Binns is therefore a descendant of the eleventh— and twelfth—century tea bowls that are also on view on the balcony. Binns, who owned a collection of Japanese ceramics, moved from England to the United States in the late nineteenth century, and is credited with laying the foundation for the rise of the American studio pottery in the early twentieth century.